Submitted to: International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/1/2008
Publication Date: 11/14/2008
Citation: Wang, D., S.Gao,J.S. Gerik, B.D.Hanson, N. Tharayil, R. Qin, G.T. Browne, C. Smith, K. Klonsky, B. Westerdahl, S. Vasquez, S.R. Yates. 2008. Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Vineyard Replant. International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions. 14:1-3.
Interpretive Summary: Prior to replanting a new vineyard in a previous grape field, the soil often needs to be reconditioned to create an optimal substrate environment for crop growth. Common soil problems associated with grape replant include compaction, pH and nutrient imbalances, salinity, and soil-borne diseases and pathogens including plant-parasitic nematodes and fungi, and phylloxera. Soil fumigation with either methyl bromide or Telone including 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin is used by the grape growers in central California to control these soilborne pests. The project is part of the USDA-ARS Pacific Area-Wide Pest Management Program for Methyl Bromide Alternatives. Preliminary results showed nematode control in all fumigated plots, but not in the non-fumigated plots. Effective control was found for Pythium, but not for Fusarium (except in the methyl bromide treatment). The field experiment will be repeated in fall 2008.
Technical Abstract: Soil fumigation with methyl bromide is needed by grape growers in central California to control soilborne pests. However, use of methyl bromide is banned and soil fumigation with other chemicals subjects to strict regulations to protect human health and air quality. The objective was to determine, in grapevine replant situations, the needs and alternatives for soil fumigation with methyl bromide for effectively controlling plant pathogens and parasitic nematodes, low emission losses, and positive responses in vine growth. Field experiments were conducted in a field plot at the USDA-ARS San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center located near Parlier, CA. Eight treatments were devised and implemented in a randomized block design with three replications. Preliminary results indicate that nematodes in the buried bags survived in the non-fumigated plots, but none were found in all the fumigated plots. Effective control was found for Fusarium in the surface 15 cm soil only in the methyl bromide treatment. For Pythium, except for the control and cover crop treatments, effective control was observed in all fumigated plots regardless the chemical type and rate of application. The VIF tarp significantly reduced fumigant emissions in both the shank and the subsurface drip treatment. Seedlings of Cabernet Sauvignon were planted on March 18, 2008. Crop responses will be measured in vine pruning biomass and cane diameter in winter 2008 when the vines reach dormancy.