Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/1/2009
Publication Date: 5/21/2009
Citation: Kahlon, T.S., Chiu, M.M., Chapman, M.H. 2009. In Vitro Bile-Acid-Binding of Whole vs. Pearled Wheat Grain. Cereal Chemistry. 86(3):329-332.
Interpretive Summary: Relative health-promoting potential of whole grain wheat (hard red winter, hard white winter, Durum) and their refined grains was evaluated by in vitro bile acid binding capacity. Whole grain hard red winter and hard white winter wheat have significantly higher health-promoting potential than their refined grains. Similar bile acid binding of whole grain hard white and hard red suggest that whole grain hard white wheat was as healthful as whole grain hard red wheat. The darker color of hard red wheat flour commonly associated with whole grain may not necessarily indicate more healthfulness than the whole grain white wheat flour. Significantly higher bile acid binding of whole grain hard red winter and hard white winter wheat suggest that regular consumption of whole grain wheat should be encouraged.
Technical Abstract: Health benefits of consuming whole grains help reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke and cancer. The USDA Food Guide pyramid and dietary guidelines recommend the consumption of 6-10 oz of grain products daily and one-half of that is desired to be containing whole grains (2005). Whole grains contain vitamins, minerals, fiber and phytonutrients. Refining grains removes bran, which contains most of the health-promoting nutrients. Bile acid-binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of food fractions. Lowered recirculating bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduce fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with the increased risk of cancer. Bile acid-binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease as well as that of cancer. Whole (W) grain as well as refined (R) hard red winter (Hrw) wheat, hard white winter (Hww) wheat, and durum (DU) wheat cooked grains were evaluated for their in-vitro, bile acid-binding relative to cholestryramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug). Relative bile acid-binding values were WHrw, 7.7%; WHww, 7.5%; RHww, 6.3%; RHrw, 6.0%; WDU, 5.5%; and RDU, 5.4%. Binding values for WHrw and WHww were similar and significantly (P = 0.05) higher than those for RHww, RHrw, WDU and RDU. Similar bile acid binding of whole grain hard white wheat to that of whole grain hard red wheat suggest that the red color commonly associated with whole grain may not necessarily indicate a more healthful potential. Data suggest that WHrw and WHww wheat have significantly higher health-promoting potential than their refined grains. Whole or refined durum wheat health-promoting potential was similar to that of refined hard white winter or refined hard red winter wheat. Consumption of products containing whole grain hard red winter wheat and hard white winter wheat are recommended.