Submitted to: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/27/2007
Publication Date: 6/1/2008
Citation: Nicklas, T.A., O'Neil, C.E., Kleinman, R. 2008. Association between 100% juice consumption and nutrition intake and weight of children aged 2 to 11 years. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 162(6):557-565. Interpretive Summary: One hundred percent juice intake, even in amounts exceeding recommendations, was not associated with obesity and provides valuable nutrients, including vitamins C and B6, folate, potassium, and magnesium, and is associated with decreased intake of total and saturated fat, added sugar, and discretionary fat. Furthermore, 100% juice consumption was associated with increased intake of fruit and was not associated with decreased intake of other nutrient-dense foods, such as milk, meat, or vegetables, in the children's diet. Consumption of 100% juice as part of an overall healthy diet should be encouraged based on its nutritional benefits. The weight of the current scientific evidence clearly supports the nutritional benefits of 100% juice consumption and does not support a relationship between overweight and 100% juice consumption in children.
Technical Abstract: The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between 4 categories of daily 100% juice consumption (0 fl oz, greater than 0 to less than or equal to 6 fl oz; greater than 6 to less than 12 fl oz; and greater than or equal to 12 fl oz) and nutrient and food group intake and weight in children. We used a cross-sectional study design for secondary analysis of the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected on children 2 to 11 years of age (N = 3618) relative to juice consumption. The association between juice consumption, nutrient intake, food group consumption, and weight status was determined,as was the likelihood of overweight with juice consumption. Mean daily juice consumption was 4.1 fl oz, which contributed a mean intake of 58 calories (3.3% of total energy intake). Compared to nonconsumers, the overall nutritional profile of those consuming 100% juice had significantly higher intakes of energy, carbohydrates, vitamins C and B6, potassium, riboflavin, magnesium, iron, and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, discretionary fat, and added sugar. Children consuming 100% juice also consumed significantly more servings of total whole fruit than nonconsumers. No significant differences were found in weight status and the amounts of 100% juice consumed. There was no difference in the likelihood of being overweight between juice consumers and nonconsumers. On average, children consumed less than the maximum amounts of 100% juice recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. One hundred percent juice consumption was associated with better nutrient intake than in the nonconsumption group and was not associated with weight status or the likelihood of being overweight in children 2 to 11 years of age.