|Xu, Jingyuan - James|
Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/13/2009
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
Citation: Mohamed, A., Xu, J., Singh, M. 2010. Yeast leavened banana-bread: formulation, processing, color and texture analysis. Food Chemistry. 118:620-626.
Interpretive Summary: The objective of this work is to use baked product to deliver potassium and dietary fiber by adding powdered banana to bread flour. In 2004, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine established an adequate intake level for potassium based on intake levels that have been found to lower blood pressure, reduce salt sensitivity, and minimize the risk of kidney stones. Soluble fiber has been proven to lower high cholesterol among other health benefits. This project benefits the overall public health and increases the profitability of the wheat-starch industry. The amounts of added banana powder added (up to 30%) were not found to alter bread quality significantly, while delivering up to 50% of the recommended daily intake of potassium in one pound loaf of bread. To maintain bread quality, the formulations included additional wheat gluten to the regular bread formulation. This will boost up vital wheat gluten utilization, a by-product of wheat-starch industry. In addition to the health benefits, this project could also help increase the sales of bread flour grown in North Dakota.
Technical Abstract: Banana powder (BP) was added to Hard Red Spring Wheat flour (HRSW) intended for yeast-leavened bread formulation. Five different formulations containing 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% BP were prepared with varying amounts of base flour, while vital gluten was maintained at 25% in all blends. Based on the added BP amounts only, the prepared bread could deliver 42.87-128.6 mg potassium / 30 g of bread (one regular slice) and 0.33-1.00 g of fiber. Although the dough water absorption was increased, due to BP addition, the dough mixing tolerance (MTI) had decreased. The bread loaf volume was significantly higher than the control except for the 30% blend, where the loaf volume was similar to the control. Bread staling had increased with BP levels due to the high sugar content but, this effect was limited to the first two days of storage. Blends exhibited darker color due to the high sugar and protein, while the 25 and 30% blends had the lowest percent of freezable water. The amounts of acetic acid extractable proteins from the dry blends and the dough had decreased with increase in BP. The linear rheological properties of the control, 10%, and 30% blends exhibited similar viscoelastic solid behavior, where both G’ and G” had plateaus (G’>G”) and there were parallel to each other over three decades of the frequency. Blends showed higher moduli values than the control.