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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Poisonous Plant Research

Title: The Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers From Congenitally Cleft Goats Palates

item Hanes, Michael
item Weinzweig, Jeffrey
item Panter, Kip
item Mcclellan, Thomas
item Caterson, Stefanie
item Buchman, Steven
item Faulkner, John
item Yu, Deborah
item Cederba, Paul
item Larkin, Lisa

Submitted to: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/15/2007
Publication Date: 2/1/2008
Publication URL:
Citation: Hanes, M.C., Weinzweig, J., Panter, K.E., Mcclellan, T., Caterson, S.A., Buchman, S.R., Faulkner, J.A., Yu, D., Cederba, P.S., Larkin, L.M. 2008. The Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers From Congenitally Cleft Goats Palates. Annals of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 60 No. 2, pp. 188-193.

Interpretive Summary: Cleft palate is part of a group of congenital anomalies produced by various poisonous plants containing toxins that cause contracture type birth defects. This cleft palate goat model has been used over the last decade to study the cleft palate anomaly and better understand the human condition and develop improved techniques and procedures for better treatment. Using this model it was determined that two types of muscle fibers are inherent depending on if the palate is normal or clefted. Normal palates contain type 1 muscle fibers whereas clefted palates contain type 2 muscle fibers which are proned to fatigue and weakness. It is believed that the predominance of type 2 muscle fibers in cleft patients, even after surgical repair, may be responsible for a condition in people known as velopharyngeal insufficiency which requires further corrective surgery.

Technical Abstract: A cleft palate goat model was used to study the contractile properties of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle which is responsible for the movement of the soft palate. In 15-25% of patients that undergo palatoplasty, residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) remains a problem and often requires further corrective surgery. In the goat model it was determined that mature normal goat palates are composed exclusively of tyep 1 (slow) muscle fibers and mature cleft goat palates consist predominately of type 2 (fast) muscle fibers. It is thought that the type 2 muscle fibers inherent in the LVP of congenital clefted goats and and likely in people, may play a role in post repair VPI in people.

Last Modified: 10/16/2017
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