Submitted to: Journal of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2008
Publication Date: 4/9/2008
Citation: Keast, D.R., Hoerr, S.L., Nicklas, T.A. 2008. Energy intake from foods and beverages consumed between meals by adolescents ages 12–18 years: NHANES, 1999–2004 [abstract]. Journal of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 22:875.2. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe meal patterns of adolescents ages 12–18 years (n = 5,811), and energy intake from snacks/drinks consumed between meals. NHANES, 1999–2004, Day 1, 24-h recall data were classified by food group, meal type, and time of day. Snacks/drinks were consumed by 90% of adolescents; 653 Kcal from snacks/drinks was 28% of total energy intake. Energy intake of meal skippers (n = 3,146) who did or did not consume snacks/drinks was 2166 vs. 1458 Kcal/d, respectively, compared to 2571 vs. 2077 Kcal/d for those who did not skip meals (n = 2,665). Of 653 Kcal from snacks/drinks, 510 Kcal (78%) were snacks that included food; 31% were food and beverages consumed together as snacks, 47% were snacks with no beverage, and 22% were drinks consumed with no food. Of the 510 Kcal from snacks, 8.5% were consumed in the morning, 44.5% in the afternoon, and 47% in the evening (6:00 PM-3:59 AM). Foods contributing 68% of energy from snacks/drinks included cereal and grain products, 6%; sweets (cake, cookies, candy), 20%; salty snacks, 15%; vegetables and fruit, 4.5%; dairy foods, 8%, meat/poultry/fish and mixtures, 14.5%. Beverages contributed 32% of energy from snacks/drinks: milk and milk drinks, 6%; juice, 2%; fruit drinks, 5%; regular soft drinks, 14%; other beverages, 5%. Intake from snacks/drinks consumed between meals contributes to total energy intake, particularly for adolescents who skipped meals.