Submitted to: Biocontrol Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/10/2008
Publication Date: 8/13/2008
Citation: Lacey, L.A., Thomson, D., Vincent, C., Arthurs, S.P. 2008. Codling Moth Granulovirus: A Comprehensive Review. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 18:639-663. Interpretive Summary: The codling moth is the principle pest of apple in North America and other regions of the world where apple is grown. Most growers use broad spectrum insecticides to control the moth and other orchard pests. In order to reduce the amount of chemical pesticides in the environment and their residues on food, alternatives to broad spectrum pesticides are being developed. One of the most effective non-chemical means of control of the codling moth is a virus that is specific for the moth and closely related pest species. YARL scientists are researching ways in which to use the virus in the most effective manner. In this document, YARL scientists, an Agriculture Canada researcher and an industry research and technical development scientist worked together to review research on and use of the virus worldwide. Their compilation and review of the literature resulted in an organized and extensive source of information regarding the biology, application, and factors that influence activity of the codling moth virus. This information will be used by researchers, growers and commercial producers of the virus and will enable better utilization of it as a component of organic and conventional apple production with reduced chemical pesticides.
Technical Abstract: Codling moth (CM) is regarded as the most injurious insect pest of apple in most countries where apple is grown. It is key pest of apple in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In conventional orchards, CM is usually controlled with broad-spectrum insecticides. A variety of problems associated with extensive use of these non-selective pesticides include: negative environmental effects, insecticide resistance, outbreaks of secondary pests and safety for pesticide applicators and the food supply. Concerns about these consequences have increased the interest in and development of alternative means of control that have little or no impact on humans, beneficial non-target organisms (honey bees, predators, and parasites) and sensitive ecosystems. An effective and selective alternative to chemical insecticides for CM control with no negative impact on humans and beneficial organisms is the CM granulovirus (CpGV). The virus was first discovered in Mexico and subsequently studied and evaluated in Europe and North America. Commercial formulations of CpGV are now produced in Europe and North America and used by orchardists worldwide. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of commercial development of CpGV, its pathology, field use, factors that influence efficacy, formulation, host resistance and the role of the virus in integrated pest management.