Submitted to: HortScience
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/16/2008
Publication Date: 8/4/2008
Citation: Finn, C.E., Thomas, A.L., Byers, P.L., Serce, S. 2008. Evaluation of American (Sambucus canadensis) and European (S. nigra) elderberry genotypes grown in Missouri and Oregon and impact on cultivar development. HortScience. 43(5):1385-1391. Interpretive Summary: Elderberry cultivars and selections were evaluated in Oregon and Missouri to see how the they grew and produced differently at the different locations. We hoped that performance in Missouri, where they have breeding programs to develop new cultivars, would predict performance in Oregon, but it did not. Cultivars of the American and European elderberry species (Sambucus canadensis, S. nigra) were compared in Oregon, and the cultivars of the American species were higher yielding. Previous research from these same plants in Oregon had already shown that there were differences in the chemical profile of the colors (anthocyanins) of the fruit juice produced by these species. The genotypes of the European species tended to flower much earlier but still ripened at the same time as the American species. Johns, York, Golden and Gordon B were the highest yielding American elderberry cultivars and Korsør the highest yielding European elderberry cultivar.
Technical Abstract: Elderberry genotypes (S. canadensis, S. nigra) were evaluated in Oregon and Missouri to assess genotypic differences and determine GxE interactions. Seventeen S. canadensis genotypes were planted at Missouri St. Univ. (Mountain Grove) and the Univ. of Missouri (Mt. Vernon) and/or at the USDA-ARS in Oregon. Johns, Netzer, Adams II and Gordon B were in common at all locations. Three genotypes of S. nigra were planted in Oregon. Plants were evaluated for phenology, vegetative growth, yield components and pest incidence. For the genotypes in common to all locations, there were significant differences due to genotype, location, year, and the interactions for various traits. While the trend was for Corvallis to have the highest and Mt. Vernon the lowest yield there was no significant location effect. The significant GxE interaction was due to the differential performance of Johns, which was high yielding in Oregon and low yielding in Missouri. The significant G x E suggests that as the Missouri institutions develop new cultivars, it will be important to test them individually at other locations and not rely on their performance in Missouri. For the genotypes in common to the two Missouri sites, there was significant variation for many traits. While there were no differences among genotypes for yield across the locations there was a significant G x E. While there were some small changes in performance among the sites for yield, the most dramatic changes were for Wyldewood 1. Plant growth in Oregon was 40-60% greater than in Missouri. In Oregon, the species behaved differently. Phenologically, while the S. nigra genotypes in this trial flowered about 3 weeks earlier than the S. canadensis genotypes, they ripened at the same time. Since both species flowered well after the danger of frost, the primary advantage to the later flowering in S. canadensis is the shorter period of time the developing fruit are exposed to biotic and abiotic stress. Johns, York, Golden and ‘Gordon B’ were the highest yielding S. canadensis genotypes and Korsør the highest S. nigra genotypes.