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Title: Biosynthesis of fusaric acid by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

item Stipanovic, Robert - Bob
item Wheeler, Michael - Mike
item Liu, Jinggao
item Puckhaber, Lorraine
item Bell, Alois - Al

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/20/2008
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: A genetically unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen was first recognized in wilted and dead Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings in Australia in 1993. Since that time, the disease has spread rapidly with losses greater than 90 percent in some Australian fields where it was first discovered. Australian biotypes have been inadvertently introduced into the U.S. in at least two shiploads of cottonseed imported into California for dairy feed. These biotypes are a threat to 4-6 million acres of cotton grown on heavy alkaline soils in the U.S. There is limited resistance to the Australian Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (F.o.v.) biotype. The Australian biotypes have not yet been found in California cotton fields; however, F.o.v. race 4 was identified for the first time in California in 2000. Race 4 causes severe Fusarium wilt in Pima cultivars (G. barbadense). The phytotoxin fusaric acid has been identified within cotton infected with F.o.v. Both the Australian F.o.v. biotype and race 4 produce prodigious quantities of fusaric acid in culture. To determine the importance of this phytotoxin to pathogenicity, we investigated the biosynthesis of fusaric acid using single and doubled labelled 13C-acetate and DL-4-13C-aspartate. Our findings substantiate those of earlier investigators showing that three molecules of acetate are introduced into fusaric acid at carbon atoms 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, while those from carbons 2, 3, 4 and 11 are derived from aspartate or oxaloacetate.