Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/31/2008
Publication Date: 10/7/2008
Publication URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/21166
Citation: Lekgari, L.A., Baenziger, P.S., Vogel, K.P., Baltensperger, D.D. Identifying Wnter Forage Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) Strains for the Central Great Plains. Crop Science 48: 2040-2048; ARIS 223945, published October 7, 2008. Interpretive Summary: Triticale, a human-made crop, is mainly used as an annual forage crop in the central Great Plains. The purpose of this study was to evaluate existing triticale cultivars and experimental strains for their relative value in the central Great Plains for use as an annual hay crop primarily for beef cattle. Two experiments (one for forage yield and one for grain yield) were grown in eastern and western Great Plains locations for two years. There were significant location effects for grain and biomass yields as expected because of differences in precipitation. Forage quality traits of the triticale strains evaluated were stable over environments. Forage quality varied among strains but all strains produced a good quality hay for beef cattle. Three strains had both high grain and forage yield and good forage quality demonstrating that both grain and forage yield of triticale can be improved by breeding while maintaining forage quality.
Technical Abstract: Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack), a human-made crop, is mainly used as a forage crop in the central Great Plains. A successful triticale cultivar should have high forage yield with good quality, and also high grain yield so the seed can be economically produced. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate existing triticale cultivars and experimental strains for their relative value in the central Great Plains for use as an annual hay crop primarily for beef cattle. Two experiments (one for forage yield and one for grain yield) were planted at two locations for two years. The two locations used in this study represent the arid high plains and the eastern part of the Great Plains where more rainfall is received. Twenty-nine triticale cultivars and strains were evaluated for forage yield and quality, and grain yield. In both experiments, years were significant (p<0.05) for all traits except grain yield; locations were significant for forage yield, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). There was no location x strain or year x location x strain interaction for all the quality traits indicating that triticale forage quality was stable across environments. Triticale strains were significantly different for forage yield, grain yield, NDF, acid detergent lignin (ADL), and relative feed value (RFV), however all strains maintained a good feed quality. Three strains, NT02454, NT02421 and NT02419 had high grain yield and forage yield or very good relative feed value suggesting that triticale improvement for these important traits is possible. Visual selection for forage yield or forage quality using agronomic traits e.g. grain yield, flowering date, and plant height would be largely unsuccessful as indicated by the low or non-significant correlations among those traits and forage yield and forage quality.