Submitted to: Aquaculture
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/23/2008
Publication Date: 7/1/2008
Citation: Smith, J.L., Boyer, G.L., Zimba, P.V. 2008. A review of cyanobacterial odorous and bioactive metabolites: impacts and management alternatives in aquaculture. Aquaculture 280:5-20. Interpretive Summary: It is well known that cyanobacteria can impact aquaculture systems. The effects are two-fold: production of noxious compounds that can slow growth/kill the aquaculture species, or through production of off-flavor metabolites that render the product not saleable. This paper is the first comprehensive review of both toxic and off-flavor producing cyanobacteria in aquaculture systems.
Technical Abstract: An increased demand has pushed extensive aquaculture towards intensively operated production systems, commonly resulting in eutrophic conditions and cyanobacterial blooms. This review summarizes cyanobacterial secondary metabolites that can cause undesirable tastes and odors (odorous metabolites) or are biochemically active (bioactive metabolites) in marine and freshwater, extensive and intensive aquaculture. For the scope of this paper, biochemically active metabolites include (1) toxins that can cause mortality in aquaculture organisms or have the potential to harm consumers via accumulation in the product (hepatotoxins, cytotoxins, neurotoxins, dermatoxins, and brine shrimp/molluskal toxins), (2) metabolites that may degrade the nutritional status of aquaculture species (inhibitors of proteases and grazer deterrents) or (3) metabolites that have the potential to negatively affect the health of aquaculture species or aquaculture laborers (dermatoxins, irritant toxins, hepatoxins, cytotoxins). Suggestions are made as to future management practices in intensive and extensive aquaculture and the potential exposure pathways to aquaculture species and human consumers are identified.