|O HEARN, EMILY|
Submitted to: American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/10/2007
Publication Date: 11/8/2007
Citation: Wilson, W.C., Lenhoff, R., Hindson, B., Torres, C., Stalknecht, D., Mead, D., O Hearn, E.S., Drolet, B.S., Mecham, J.O. 2007. Nucleic Acid Diagnostic Tools for Early Detection of Arthropod-Borne Animal Viruses. American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians.
Interpretive Summary: The Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) has been involved with the development of diagnostic tests for bluetongue virus (BTV) and the related epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) for many years. This report summarizes the existing and developing diagnostic tests for these viruses. In addition, the recent outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in East Africa has highlighted the need for validated early detection tools for RVF. The ABADRL has established cooperative research relationships and has initiated this new research assignment.
Technical Abstract: The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of existing and emerging nucleic acid diagnostic tools for arthropod-borne animal viral diseases. The outbreak of West Nile virus in the United Sates (U.S.) and the recent outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in East Africa have highlighted the need for validated early detection tools for arthropod-borne animal viral diseases. The Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory has been involved for several years with the development of rapid nucleic acid detection tests for Bluetongue virus (BTV) and the related Epizootic Hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). Bluetongue virus causes disease in sheep and cattle and has significant economic impact due to trade barriers. Although U.S. EHDV strains have not been experimentally proven to cause disease in cattle, there is serologic evidence of widespread infection in cattle. We have developed a rapid real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) test that detects RNA from indigenous and exotic strains of BTV and EHDV. The RVF outbreak prompted the evaluation of existing qRT-PCR assays on livestock samples. In conclusion, a number of qRT-PCR tests have been developed for early detection of arboviral animal pathogens, and are, or soon will be, available to veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The next generation of nucleic acid diagnostic tests will include multiplex or multi-target assays either to differentiate pathogens that cause similar clinical symptoms or differentiate species of a specific pathogen. The concept of simultaneous detection of multiple genomic targets for a single pathogen will help to ensure detection which is of particular concern for RNA viruses that are known to be highly genetically variable.