Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/30/2007
Publication Date: 9/25/2007
Citation: Manners, G.D. 2007. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55:8285-8294. Interpretive Summary: This publication provides a chronological review of research on compounds in citrus that are responsible for the development of bitterness. The review describes the research that identified the bitter citrus compounds (limonoids), the means of their formation, methods for their analysis and the natural mechanism in citrus that mitigates their bitterness. The review relates the rationale for the examination of this group of compounds as anti-tumor agents, cholesterol-lowering agents and other biological activity. The means to recover large amounts of these compounds from citrus processing waste materials is also described. The potential of these compounds as beneficial agents to improve human health is also examined.
Technical Abstract: This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical basis of citrus bitterness is chronicled and the research leading to the identification of natural debittering mechanisms in citrus is related. The rationale for the consideration of citrus limonoids as bioactive compounds with potential importance to humans as anti-tumor agents or for cholesterol-lowering is described and the corresponding assessments of related bioactivity are detailed. Methods for the isolation of industrial scale amounts of biologically active limonoids are discussed. The potential of the citrus limonoids for utilization in functional foods and as therapeutics with importance to human health is examined.