Submitted to: CDFA Pierce's Disease Control Program Research Symposium
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/23/2007
Publication Date: 12/10/2007
Citation: Hunter, W.B., Wistrom, C., Purcell, A. 2007. Protein identities from 'Graphocephala atropunctata' expressed sequence tags: Expanding leafhopper vector biology. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Pierce's Disease Research Symposium, December 12-14, 2007, San Diego, California. p. 25-29. Interpretive Summary: Heat shock proteins and 44 other protein sequences were produced and identified from genetic sequences isolated from the blue-green sharpshooter, an important insect vector of Pierce’s disease of grapes. The sequences were submitted and published under accession numbers: DQ445499-DQ445542, in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI, public Database. The blue-green sharpshooter leafhopper, ‘Graphocephala atropunctata’ (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) occurs naturally in California, and spreads the plant infecting bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, which causes Pierce's disease of grapes, and other Scorch-like diseases in many other woody fruit crops and ornamentals. Extremely hot and cold temperatures in California causes stress on insects. By determining how leafhoppers are protecting themselves during these stressful conditions researchers also find ways to reduce leafhopper survival. Emerging strategies will target these biological pathways so that leafhoppers will be unable to survive high temperatures or freezing cold. These sequences are a resource for potential genetic markers to be used in the monitoring of leafhopper pests, and provide new information on leafhopper biological pathways which may now be targeted to reduce leafhoppers. These sequences provide new tools to advance our understanding of leafhopper vectors of Xylella bacteria, as well as a means to examine the seasonal interactions with predaceous beneficial insects which may be feeding on these and other leafhopper pests.
Technical Abstract: Heat shock proteins and 44 protein sequences from the blue-green sharpshooter, BGSS, were produced and identified. The sequences were submitted and published under accession numbers: DQ445499-DQ445542, in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI, Public Database. The blue-green sharpshooter leafhopper, ‘Graphocephala atropunctata’ (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is endemic to California, and is a vector of the plant infecting bacterium, ‘Xylella fastidiosa’, which causes Pierce’s disease of grapes, and other Scorch-like diseases in many other woody fruit crops and ornamentals. The pathogen infects the xylem of plants and can cause the loss of fruit, and/or plant death. Pierce’s disease of grapes severely limits the location and types of grapes and other tree crops, which can be grown throughout the southern United States. Traditional chemical and biological management measures to reduce Pierces disease and its leafhopper vectors have proven to be effective but costly. Biological control measurements provide environmentally friendly management tools of insect pests. We produced an expression library prepared from adult leafhoppers which resulted in the identification of these proteins and numerous other genetic sequences for the production of molecular markers to monitor leafhopper presence, predators, and physiology. The use of these genetic markers provides new tools and information to advance our understanding of leafhopper vectors of Xylella bacteria, as well as the seasonal interactions with beneficial insects which is an important component in management strategies of leafhopper pests.