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Title: Relative amounts of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in foods prepared from wheat flour under commerically relevant conditions

item Voss, Kenneth - Ken
item Snook, Maurice
item Li, Wu
item Strouts, Brian
item Barach, Jeffrey

Submitted to: Toxicological Sciences
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/7/2007
Publication Date: 3/16/2008
Citation: Voss, K.A., Snook, M.E., Li, W., Strouts, B., Barach, J. 2008. Relative amounts of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in foods prepared from wheat flour under commerically relevant conditions. Toxicological Sciences. March 16-20, 2008. Seattle, WA.

Interpretive Summary: Abstract - no summary required.

Technical Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium mycotoxin found in wheat, barley, corn and in food products of cereal origin. DON causes variable effects in animals including feed refusal, decreased weight gain, or altered immune function. DON's human health effects are not well understood, and there is concern that it might adversely affect growth or immune function in children. Some cooking methods reduce DON levels in foods while others do not. DON concentrations in wheat flour and flour-based products made under commercially relevant conditions were compared by gas chromatography (GC) - electron capture detection to assess DON reduction. Mass balance was estimated from DON concentration and product yield data. The concentrations of DON detected in cookies, crackers, and pretzels ranged from 67% (cookies) to 113% (pretzels) of the initial amount in flour (<0.5 ppm). Greater reductions, approximately 70%, were found in bread. Mass balance calculations yielded a similar pattern: total DON in the batches of cookies, crackers, and pretzels ranged from 93% to 110% of the amount in flour whereas 45% was found in bread. This indicates that reduced DON concentrations in bread partially resulted from dilution effects related to its relatively high yield (1:1.6, flour:bread). DON concentrations (detection by GC-mass spectrometry) of fried donuts were reduced about 75% and, like bread, dilution by other ingredients contributed to reduction. These studies constitute the first phase of investigations on the fate of DON in foods prepared under commercial conditions and are therefore preliminary. They nonetheless show that significant amounts of DON survived processing and were found in the cookies, crackers, and pretzels. A modest reduction occurred in baked bread and reductions were also found in fried donuts.