Submitted to: Progress in Lipid Research
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/15/2007
Publication Date: 12/31/2007
Citation: Hilker, B.L., Fukushige, H., Hou, C.T., Hildebrand, D. 2007. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production. Progress in Lipid Research. 47(1):1-14.
Technical Abstract: This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activities. A few crystallographic analyses of the standard bearer enzyme P450BM-3 are discussed to try to rationalize the common chemistries of this important enzyme family. Detailed P450BM-3 enzyme activities toward different substrates and the unique substrate-specific primary oxidation products are examined. A few orthologs to the recurring P450BM-3 enzyme as well as related small single-to-triple nucleotides changed mutants are also discussed. Finally, preliminary data characterizing unique in vivo-based primary and secondary products of a novel ortholog, the ALA2 strain, are presented. This later strain synthesizes several unique multi-oxidized reaction products that require additional study to further understand. It is hoped that a better understanding of these oxygenase reactions, particularly the ALA2 strain, will allow for realistically priced production of target multiply-oxygenated compounds with potential uses as specialty chemicals or as therapeutic agents.