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item Souza, Edward

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2006
Publication Date: 5/1/2007
Citation: Guttieri, M.J., Peterson, K.M., Souza, E.J. 2007. Nutritional and baking quality of low phytic acid wheat. In: Buck, H.T., Nisi, J.E. Wheat Production in Stressed Environments. Dordrecht, The Neatherlands:Springer. p. 487-493.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorus in wheat grain. Non-ruminant animals cannot utilize phytic acid phosphorus, and phytic acid reduces the nutritional availability of important minerals. We have identified a wheat mutant (Lpa1-1) with reduced phytic acid P and increased inorganic P (Pi). Ideally, LPA wheat will have improved micronutrient availability without detrimental effects on baking quality. To test this hypothesis, the mutant phenotype was transferred via backcrossing into the hard red spring wheat cultivar “Grandin.” Wild type (WT) and low phytic acid (LPA) sib selections from two backcross families were grown in replicated, irrigated yield trials at Aberdeen, ID in 2003 and 2004. Total P, Pi, and phytic acid P (PAP) were measured in grain and in fractions obtained after milling on a Quadrumat Sr. experimental mill. Elemental concentrations (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, S and Zn) were measured in flour and bran fractions by ICP mass spectrometry. Total P concentration in grain of WT and LPA sib lines was similar. However, the distribution of P between phytic acid and Pi was altered: Pi in LPA grain was up to 340% of WT grain, and PAP in LPA grain was reduced to as low as 65% of the concentration in WT grain. This difference in P composition of grain was reflected in flour: Pi in break and reduction flours of LPA wheat was 3- to 4- times the concentration in break and reduction flours from WT wheat. Total P concentration in LPA flours was 20% greater than in WT flours. Mineral concentrations in bran and shorts to LPA and WT wheats were similar. However, magnesium concentrations in LPA break and reduction flours were significantly greater than in WT flours. The LPA genotype had little effect on concentrations of other minerals. Increases in P and Mg concentration in LPA flours were manifested in greater flour ash concentration. Flour ash of WT flours average 3.86g kg-1; flour ash of LPA flours averaged 4.38g kg-1. Protein concentration of LPA and WT flours was similar. However, LPA flours had a longer time to mixograph peak and greater mixograph peak height than WT flours. Bread loaf volume of LPA and WT flours was similar. The results of this study indicate that the LPA trait can produce flours with greater Pi and Mg concentration and little effect on bread flour functionality.