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Title: Blastocyst Elongation, Trophoblastic Differentiation and Embryonic Pattern Formation

item Blomberg, Le Ann
item VIEBAHN, CHRISTOPHER - Gottingen University

Submitted to: Reproduction
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/16/2007
Publication Date: 2/1/2008
Citation: Blomberg, L., Hashizume, K., Viebahn, C. 2008. Blastocyst elongation, trophoblastic differentiation, and embryonic pattern formation. 2008. Reporduction. 135:181-95.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The molecular basis behind elongation and concomitant gastrulation in ungulates that occurs during pre-implantation is still poorly understood. In-depth transcriptome analysis of the elongating porcine conceptus at specific stages has demonstrated that protein synthesis, protein trafficking, cell growth/proliferation and cellular morphology are major processes being regulated. However, few physiological mechanisms or gene functions have been fully elucidated. Factors potentially regulating mechanisms involved in embryonic disc differentiation or initiating development of the hematological system in preparation for implantation are sparse. With respect to estrogen and interleukin, past studies have placed greater emphasis on their importance in conceptus:endometrium cross-talk. More comprehensive evaluation of gene expression indicates these factors can have an autocrine effect on the embryo and drive mechanisms involved in embryo growth, remodeling and metabolism during elongation. Furthermore, an examination of developmentally delayed ovoid embryos has detected alterations in the regulation of essential factors controlling estrogen synthesis and trophoblast characteristics. Advanced functional and pathway analysis platforms improve our ability to identify key targets and develop a better understanding of the physiological processes underlying proper trophectoderm elongation and epiblast polarization/gastrulation.