Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/1/2006
Publication Date: 12/21/2006
Citation: Li, M., Lim, C.E., Webster, C.D. 2006. Feed Formulation and Manufacture. In: Tilapia, Biology, Culture, and Nutrition, C. Lim and C.D. Webster, Eds. The Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, New York, New York, pp. 517-543. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturing processes on nutrients characteristics; and the factors affecting the physical properties of the feeds (pellet water stability and floatability). It is essential that feeds be formulated using highly digestible feedstuffs to meet fish nutrient requirements and be manufactured into a physical form with appropriates size that is readily consumed by fish. Feed manufacturing processes may have positive or negative effects on certain nutrients. The manufacturing conditions, such as high temperature, pressure, and moisture encountered during extrusion and high temperature used during drying, destroy certain nutrient and improve the availability of others. Some vitamins are sensitive to destruction by heat during storage; thus, tilapia feeds are normally overfortified with vitamins to account for losses during feed manufacture and storage. Starch digestibility appears to be improved by extrusion process. Extrusion and drying processes may also inactivate certain undesirable substance present in feedstuffs (e.g. trypsin inhibitors) and reduce the occurrence of molds and bacteria in feed pellets.