Submitted to: Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/25/2006
Publication Date: 1/25/2007
Citation: Singh, R.J., Nelson, R.L., Chung, G.H. 2007. In: Singh, R.J. editor. Genetic resources, chromosome engineering, and crop improvement. Oilseed Crops. Volume 4. Boca Raton, Florida:CRC Press. p. 13-50 Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.; 2n=40] is an economically important leguminous seed crop for feed, oil, and soyfood products because it is rich in seed protein (40%) and oil (20%). Soybean is ranked number one in world production in the international trade markets among the major oil crops. Soybean is widely grown in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, China, and India. The United States is the leader in soybean production. Soybean was domesticated from the wild soybean, which is an annual weedy-form climber, whose pods contain black seeds that shatter at maturity. The plant grows wild in China and adjacent regions of Russia, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. Soybean is not considered a model plant for cytogenetic studies because it contains high (2n=40), small and similar (symmetrical) chromosome size (1.42-2.84 'm), and lacks morphological distinguishing landmarks. Molecular geneticists have developed several molecular expected 20 linkage maps but they have not been associated with the respective chromosomes; although a pachytene karyogram and a set of possible 20 primary trisomics have been established. Cytogenetics of the soybean is behind that of maize, barley, rice, wheat, tomato, and others. There are relative large collections of germplasm for soybean the genetic base of the commercial is narrow, especially in North and South America. This chapter presents information on the domestication and origin, cytogenetics, and gene pools of soybean. Germplasm exploration, maintenance, conservation, and utilization for soybean improvement by conventional and wide hybridization are described.