Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/27/2007
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, covers gaseous chemical treatments. Fumigants have been the mainstays of phytosanitary treatments for decades, but the loss of one key fumigant, ethylene dibromide, in the mid-1980’s and the increased restriction of another, methyl bromide, presently has resulted in an extensive search for alternatives. Emphasis was initially placed on non-chemical alternatives, such as heat, cold, modified atmospheres and irradiation, but lack of progress in some areas has resulted in a rekindling of interest in fumigants, including new formulations of old fumigants and new fumigants altogether. Dilute concentrations of phosphine applied as a gas with or without carbon dioxide seems promising as does ethyl formate.