Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/15/2007
Publication Date: 3/1/2008
Citation: Hagstrum, D.W., Flinn, P.W., Reed, C.R., Phillips, T.W. 2008. Stored Grain Insect Areawide Pest Management. In: O.Koul, G. Cuperus, and N. Elliott (editors). Areawide Pest Management Theory and Implementation. Oxfordshire, UK: CAB International. p. 226-243. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: When wheat is mixed with wheat from other locations as it moves through the grain-marketing system, insect infestation can be spread to larger quantities of wheat, which increases the overall cost of insect pest management. In Kansas and Oklahoma, insect infestations currently are managed primarily by calendar-based fumigation of all of the wheat at an elevator. Grain is not sampled to determine the most effective time for fumigation. Calendar-based fumigation of all of the grain at an elevator is not cost-effective because usually only a percentage of the bins require fumigation at any one time. Delaying the fumigation, when possible, until the fall has several benefits: 1) the grain can be cooled with aeration after a fall fumigation, which decreases subsequent population growth; 2) insect immigration rates into grain bins in the fall and winter are lower than during the summer; and 3) the necessity for a second fumigation is greatly reduced because of 1 and 2. Area-wide sampling-based pest management at each elevator or across the grain marketing system using decision support software can minimize the cost and maximize the effectiveness of insect pest management. In addition, it should reduce the risk of economic losses due to insects, the amount of wheat that is fumigated, and the frequency of fumigation.