Submitted to: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/26/2007
Publication Date: 1/1/2008
Citation: Morris, J.B. 2008. Macrotyloma Axillare and M. uniflorum: Descriptor Analysis, Anthocyanin Indexes, and Potential Uses. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55: 5-8. Interpretive Summary: Perennial and common horsegram seeds and leaves contain potential medicine as well as nutritional products. Common horsegram seeds are used as a vegetable by humans. Limited information is available for growing perennial or common horsegram in the southeast U.S. is known. Both perennial and common horsegram produced quality plants and up to 8,400 seed at Griffin, GA. Natural variability for branching, leaf production, plant height, seed number and seed weight occurred among plant samples. Anthocyanins are known color producers in plants, flowers, and seeds as well as having antioxidant capacity. Horsegram leaves produce more anthocyanins than flowers. Literature indicated that perennial horsegram contains chemicals capable of helping diabetics. Quality production and healthy chemicals are found in horsegram species to allow for use in Georgia.
Technical Abstract: The purpose of this study was to characterize and identify potential new uses for perennial horsegram (Macrotyloma axillare) and horsegram (M. uniflorum) germplasm in the USDA, ARS collection. Seven morphological and yield parameters were studied in this germplasm, consisting of 11 M. axillare and 32 M. uniflorum distinct accessions. A wide variation was found in stem branching, foliage, plant height, seed number, and seed weight. Most of the accessions had a small seed mass. While there was a high correlation between seed number and seed weight for both species, only M. uniflorum showed a high correlation between branching and foliage, as well as seed weight with seed mass. Low or non-significant correlations were determined for other morphological and seed characteristics. Leaf anthocyanin indexes were similar for all M. uniflorum accessions and were significantly higher than flowers from PI 345729. Multiple phytochemical traits exist in both species for potential use as nutraceuticals, forage, and food for humans in malnourished countries as well as developed nations.