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Title: Alcohol-Induced Disruption of Endocrine Signaling

Author
item RONIS, MARTIN
item BADGER, THOMAS
item WANDS, JACK
item DE LA MONTE, SUZANNE
item LANG, CHARLES
item CALISSENDORFF, JAN

Submitted to: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/12/2007
Publication Date: 5/16/2007
Citation: Ronis, M.J., Badger, T.M., Wands, J., De La Monte, S., Lang, C.H., Calissendorff, J. 2007. Alcohol-induced disruption of endocrine signaling. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 31(8):1-17.

Interpretive Summary: This article is a summary of a symposium held at the ISBRA Meetings in Sydney Australia in September 2006 in which presentations were made on most recent findings in the field of alcohol-induced endocrine disruption. Data were presented showing that alcohol disrupts insulin and IGF-1 signaling clinically and in animal models. Disruption of insulin signaling results in impaired ability of the liver to regenerate after injury and contributes to cylic changes in alcohol metabolism by the liver enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase both of which contribute to development of alcoholic liver disease. In addition, development of insulin resistance in the developing brain results in neurotoxicy and contributes to fetal alcohol syndrome. Disruption of GH-IGF1 signaling contributes to loss of muscle mass in chronic alcoholics as a result of impaired muscle protein synthesis. In non-pregnant women, alcohol also disrupts estrogen production. Estrogens and alcohol have opposite effects on bone cells, with estrogens preventing differentiation of osteoclasts and alcohol stimulating osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption leading to bone loss. In pregnant women high levels of sex steroids, particularly estrogens prevent alcohol-induced bone resorption but do not prevent bone loss via reductions in bone formation. In addition, alcohol consumption was reported to stimulate appetite. However, although alcohol affects hormones that regulate hunger and satiety such as leptin and ghrelin, no satisfactory understanding of how alcohol regulates appetite has yet emerged.

Technical Abstract: This article contains the proceedings of a symposium at the 2006 ISBRA Meeting in Sydney Australia, organized and co-chaired by Martin J. Ronis and Thomas M. Badger. The presentations were (1) Effects of long term ethanol consumption on liver injury and repair, by Jack R. Wands; (2) Alcohol-induced insulin resistance in liver: Potential roles in regulation of ADH expression, ethanol clearance and alcoholic liver disease, by Thomas M. Badger; (3) Disruption of IGF-1 signaling in muscle as a mechanism underlying alcoholic myopathy, by Charles H. Lang; (4) Chronic gestational exposure to ethanol causes brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor resistance, by Suzanne M de la Monte; (5) The role of reduced plasma estradiol and impaired estrogen signaling in alcohol-induced bone loss, by Martin J. Ronis; and (6) Influence of alcohol on appetite-regulating hormones in man, by Jan Calissendorff.