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Title: Carotenoid Intakes, Assessed by food frequency questionnaires are associated with serum carotenoid concentrations in the Jackson Heart Study: Validation of the Jackson Heart Study Delta NIRI Adult Food Frequency Questionnaire

Author
item Talegawkar, Sameera
item Johnson, Elizabeth
item Carithers, Teresa
item Taylor, Herman
item Bogle, Margaret
item Tucker, Katherine

Submitted to: Public Health Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/13/2007
Publication Date: 12/6/2007
Citation: Talegawkar, S.A., Johnson, E.J., Carithers, T.C., Taylor, H.A., Bogle, M.L., Tucker, K.L. 2007. Carotenoid intakes, assessed by food frequency questionnaires are associated with serum carotenoid concentrations in the Jackson Heart Study: Validation of the Jackson Heart Study Delta NIRI Adult FFQs. Public Health Nutrition. 11(10):989-997.

Interpretive Summary: Intake and status of carotenoids has been associated with chronic disease. The objectives of the present study were to examine the association between carotenoid intakes as measured by two regional FFQs and their corresponding measures in serum, and to report on dietary food sources of Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants. The study was a cross sectional analysis of data for 402 African American men and women participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub Study (DPASS) of the JHS. Mean serum carotenoid concentrations and intakes in this population were comparable to those reported for the general US population. After adjustment for month of administration of FFQ, age, sex, energy intake, BMI, plasma cholesterol concentration and smoking status, correlations between serum and dietary measures of each carotenoid, for the average of the recalls (de-attenuated), short FFQ and the long FFQ, respectively, were as follows: 0.37, 0.35 and 0.21 for a-carotene; 0.35, 0.26 and 0.28 for total (diet plus supplement) ß-carotene; 0.25, 0.17 and 0.20 for dietary ß-carotene; 0.42, 0.34 and 0.26 for ß- cryptoxanthin; 0.33, 0.15 and 0.17 for lutein plus zeaxanthin and 0.37, 0.19 and 0.14 for lycopene. The major dietary sources of a-carotene were orange vegetables; of ß-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin, mustard, turnip and collard greens; of ß-cryptoxanthin, orange juice; and of lycopene, tomato juice. On average, carotenoid intakes and serum concentrations are not lower in this Southern African American population than in the general US. The two regional FFQs developed for a Southern US population and used as dietary assessment tools in the Jackson Heart Study appear to provide reasonably valid information for most of these carotenoids.

Technical Abstract: Objectives: Intake and status of carotenoids have been associated with chronic disease. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between carotenoid intakes as measured by two regional food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and their corresponding measures in serum, and to report on dietary food sources of carotenoids in Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data for 402 African American men and women participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS) of the JHS. Results: Mean serum carotenoid concentrations and intakes in this population were comparable to those reported for the general US population. After adjustment for covariates, correlations between serum and dietary measures of each carotenoid, for the average of the recalls (deattenuated), the short FFQ and the long FFQ, respectively, were: 0.37, 0.35 and 0.21 for alpha-carotene; 0.35, 0.26 and 0.28 for total (diet plus supplements) beta-carotene; 0.25, 0.17 and 0.20 for dietary beta-carotene; 0.42, 0.34 and 0.26 for beta-cryptoxanthin; 0.33, 0.15 and 0.17 for lutein plus zeaxanthin; and 0.37, 0.19 and 0.14 for lycopene. Major dietary sources of alpha-carotene were orange vegetables; of beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin, mustard, turnip and collard greens; of beta-cryptoxanthin, orange juice; and of lycopene, tomato juice. Conclusions: On average, carotenoid intakes and serum concentrations are not lower in this southern African American population than the general US population. The two regional FFQs developed for a southern US population and used as dietary assessment tools in the JHS appear to provide reasonably valid information for most of these carotenoids.