|Morales-payan, J. P.|
Submitted to: American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/11/2011
Publication Date: 6/1/2007
Citation: Shabana, Y., Charudattan, R., Klassen, W., Rosskopf, E.N., Morales-Payan, J. 2007. Mass production and application of <i>Dactylaria higginsii</i>, a bioherbicide for purple and yellow nutsedges, in solid substrate of plant material . American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Purple and yellow nutsedges (Cyperus rotundus & C. esculentus) are serious weeds in the cropping systems in Florida and in many parts of the world. They have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various crops. When methyl bromide is phased out, the losses due to nutsedge competition are expected to increase in fumigation-dependent crops. Yields in organic production systems will continue to suffer due to the lack of effective controls for nutsedges. A promising approach to nutsedge control is biological control with the fungus Dactylaria higginsii. For mass production of D. higginsii, 14 solid substrates in the form of dried, cut shoots of various plants were tested. These were tested alone or amended with 0.01% indole butyric acid (IBA), potato dextrose broth (PDB), or PDB + IBA. Conidial yield from these substrates was measured 4 and 12 weeks after inoculation. Those that were harvested after 4 weeks had a second spore harvest 4 weeks after the first harvest. Conidia were tested for virulence on purple and yellow nutsedges in the greenhouse. Conidial yields were highest when the fungus was grown on purple nutsedge hay without amendments for 4 weeks. Conidia produced on sorghum and cogongrass hays were slightly larger and thicker walled than those produced on other hay media. Conidia produced on sorghum were the most virulent on nutsedge seedlings.