Submitted to: Journal Of The American Dietetic Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/23/2008
Publication Date: 12/5/2008
Citation: Talegawkar, S.A., Johnson, E.J., Carithers, T.C., Taylor, H.A., Bogle, M.L., Tucker, K.L. 2008. Serum carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations vary by dietary pattern among African Americans. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 108:2013-2020. Interpretive Summary: African Americans in the South have a high prevalence of chronic disease. The dietary intake and blood level status of tocopherols [chemical name for vitamin E] have been associated with chronic disease. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by two regional food frequency questionnaires and their corresponding measures in serum part of blood, and to report on dietary food sources of tocopherols in 404 men and women who were part of the cross-sectional Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the Jackson Heart Study. The importance of the study is that it demonstrates these dietary intake tools are valid ways of estimating Vitamin E status.
Technical Abstract: Intake and biochemical status of antioxidants like carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with chronic diseases. Our objectives were to describe the dietary patterns of a subset of the JHS participants using data from a region-specific FFQ and to investigate the associations between these patterns with biochemical measurements of antioxidant nutrients. The participant subset was 373 African American men and women (35-84 y) from Jackson, MS, part of the cross-sectional DPASS of the JHS. Four dietary patterns were identified. They were named 1) Soft drinks, Snacks and Fast Food, 2) Cereal, Milk, Fruit and Vegetables, 3) Corn products and Bread, and 4) Fruit Juice, based on relative contributions to energy by food groups to each cluster. In multivariate-adjusted regression models, the Cereal, Milk, Fruit and Vegetables cluster had higher serum alpha carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin (all P</=0.05) concentrations relative to the Soft drinks, Snacks and Fast Food cluster. The Fruit Juice cluster was associated with higher alpha and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, alpha tocopherol and lower delta tocopherol (all P</=0.05) concentrations; and the Corn products and Bread cluster was associated with higher serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations (P</=0.05) relative to the Soft drinks, Snacks and Fast Food cluster. We conclude that diets high in soft drinks, snacks, and fast food are associated with lower concentrations, while those high in cereal, milk, fruit, and vegetable intake are associated with higher concentrations of these antioxidants. Participants were most likely to be classified into the poor quality dietary pattern, partly explaining the extensive health disparities seen in this region.