Submitted to: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/8/2007
Publication Date: 5/29/2007
Citation: Fernyhough, M.E., Okine, E., Hausman, G.J., Vierck, J.L., Dodson, M.V. 2007. Ppary and glut-4 expression as developmental regulators/markers for preadipocyte differentiation into an adipocyte. Domestic Animal Endocrinology. p. 367-378. Interpretive Summary: The development and function of two major proteins are important to fat cells and to cells that will ultimately become fat cells. In particular, a nuclear binding protein plays a pivotal role in regulating the formation of fat cells and fat cell gene expression. And, a cytoplasmic protein helps to regulate glucose transport in fat cells. Understanding the regulation of these proteins will lead to the capability to regulate fat cell development in meat animals.
Technical Abstract: In this document, we have integrated knowledge about two major cellular markers found in cells of the adipocyte lineage. The first factor is PPARy, which has been identified as an important adipogenic regulator. PPARy plays an important role in converting adipofibroblasts, fibroblasts or preadipocytes into differentiated adipocytes. Once transformed into a lipid-assimilating adipocyte, GLUT-4 has been identified as playing a role in the energetic/metabolic functions of adipocytes by allowing glucose transportation into adipocytes, after the cell has been signaled by insulin. PPARy may regulate some (early) aspects of GLUT-4, which links events of adipogenesis to subsequent events of lipid metabolism. This review provides information as to how PPARy and GLUT-4 operate in adipocyte development and metabolism. More specifically, differentiation of a cell (like an adipofibroblast, fibroblast or preadipocyte) to become a viable (and new) adipocyte is under different regulation than that experienced by an immature adipocyte that is just beginning to accumulate lipid. The differentiation event has already taken place, prior to lipid filling, and involves PPARy.