Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/15/2006
Publication Date: 7/1/2008
Citation: Lichtenstein, A.H., Daniels, S.R. 2008. Chapter 11: Dietary Reference Intakes. In: Duggan C., Watkins J.B., Walker W.A., editors. Nutrition in Pediatrics: Basic Science and Clinical Applications, 4th edition. BC Decker, Inc. p. 115-120. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as opposed to nutritional deficiency. DRI values vary according to age. Within the broader category of infants to adolescents, values have been established for the following age categories; 0 through 6 months, 7 through 12 months, 1 through 3 years, 4 through 8 years, 9 through 13 years, and 14 through 18 years. Values were determined after assessing a significant pool of data, taking the following into consideration: strength of association (usually expressed as relative risk), dose-response relationship, temporally correct association (with exposure preceding the onset of disease), consistency of association, specificity of association and biological plausibility. Full-term infants born to healthy mothers are expected to have all nutrient needs met by exclusive breastfeeding during the first 4 to 6 months of life. A transition from breast milk to a mixed diet including solid foods should begin during the second 6 months of life, and nutrient needs should be met through a combination of the two sources. As children age, they presumably consume an increasing amount of food outside of the home, and with greater independence, have greater influence on their food choices. As making wise food choices is inextricably linked meeting nutritional needs, parents, healthcare professionals, daycare providers and schools must educate children about food and nutrition. And as part of this process, make healthy food choices available and encourage children to take advantage of these options. Children's learning process is further enhanced by the presence positive adult role models with respect to their behavior and attitudes about food and nutrition.