Submitted to: International Journal of Sport Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/15/2007
Publication Date: 5/10/2007
Citation: Ziegenfuss, T.N., Hofheins, J.E., Mendel, R.W., Landis, J., Anderson, R.A. 2007. Effects of a water-soluble cinnamon extract on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic men and women. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 3:45-53.
Interpretive Summary: Metabolic syndrome is characterized by early signs of diabetes including elevated blood lipids, blood sugar, and early signs of obesity. Current estimates are that the metabolic syndrome affects over 26% of adults, or over 50 million Americans, and that it increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease up to 3-fold, and the risk for type 2 diabetes up to 5-fold. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with a water-soluble cinnamon extract on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome. Twenty-two subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with either 500 mg/d of a dried water soluble extract of cinnamon or a placebo for 12-weeks. There were significant improvement in blood glucose, blood pressure and lean body mass in subjects consuming the extract of cinnamon. These data support the efficacy of a cinnamon extract on reducing fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, and improving body composition in men and women with the metabolic syndrome and suggest that this naturally-occurring spice can reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These data are important to scientists, medical personnel, and the millions of people world-wide showing early signs of obesity and elevated blood sugar.
Technical Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with a water-soluble cinnamon extract (Cinnulin PF®) on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Twenty-two subjects with prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome (mean ± SD: age, BMI, systolic blood pressure [SBP], fasting blood glucose [FBG]: 46.0 ± 9.7 y; 33.2 ± 9.3 kg/m2; 133 ± 17 mm Hg; 114.3 ± 11.6 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with either Cinnulin PF® (500 mg/d) or a placebo for 12-weeks. Main outcome measures were changes in FBG, SBP, and body composition measured after 12-weeks of supplementation. The primary statistical analyses consisted of two factors (group x time), and repeated-measures ANOVA for between group differences over time. In all analyses, an intent-to-treat approach was used and significance was accepted at P<0.05. Results: Subjects in the Cinnulin PF® group had significant decreases in FBG (-8.4%: 116.3 ± 12.8 mg/dL [pre] to 106.5 ± 20.1 mg/dL [post], p<0.01), SBP (-3.8%: 133 ± 14 mm Hg [pre] to 128 ± 18 mm Hg [post], p<0.001), and increases in lean mass (+1.1%: 53.7 ± 11.8 kg [pre] to 54.3 ± 11.8 kg [post], p<0.002) compared with the placebo group. Additionally, within-group analyses uncovered statistically significant decreases in body fat (-0.7%: 37.9 ± 9.2 % [pre] to 37.2 ± 8.9 % [post], p<0.02) in the Cinnulin PF® group. Conclusions: These data support the efficacy of Cinnulin PF® supplementation on reducing FBG and SBP, and improving body composition in men and women with the metabolic syndrome and suggest that this naturally-occurring spice can reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.