Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/12/2004
Publication Date: 6/25/2006
Citation: Heird, W.C., Cooper, A. 2006. Infancy and childhood. In: Shils, M.E., Shike, M., Ross, A.C., Caballero, B., Cousins, R.J., editors. Modern Nutrition in Health and Desease. 10th edition. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 797-817. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The nutritional requirements of infants and children reflect this population's unique needs for growth and developmental changes in organ function and body composition as well as their maintenance needs. Moreover, since the metabolic rate of infants and children is greater and the turnover of nutrients more rapid than those of the adult, the unique nutrient needs for growth and development are superimposed upon higher maintenance requirements than those of the adult. In addition, the potential impact of intake during early life on later development and health must be considered. Finally, provision of these greater needs, particularly to the smaller members of this population, is hindered by their lack of teeth as well as their limited digestive and metabolic processes. In this chapter, the nutrient needs of normal infants and children as well as factors of importance in meeting these needs are discussed, as are the nutritional needs of LBW infants and ways of providing these needs. The nutrient needs of infants and children with acute or chronic diseases that impact nutrient needs and/or management are discussed in another chapter that also includes a general discussion of approaches to providing the nutritional needs of compromised infants and children as well as a detailed discussion of parenteral nutrition in infants and children.