Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/6/2006
Publication Date: 12/6/2006
Citation: Gao, S. 2006. Methods To Reduce Soil Fumigation Emissions. Meeting Abstract, presentation at the 34th Almond Industry Conference, Modesto, CA, Dec. 6-7, 2006. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Soil fumigation is an important management practice for controlling soil pests in many high value crops including almonds. Reducing atmospheric emissions is necessary to minimize the environmental impact of soil fumigation. Water seals (sprinkling water on soil surface) to reduce fumigant emissions is more cost-effective than plastic tarps. We conducted two field trials in 2005 and investigated the effectiveness of water seals on emission reduction on 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in comparison with other surface seal methods. The first trial tested various surface treatments to reduce emissions from shank-injection of Telone C35 (61% 1,3-D and 35% CP). The second trial evaluated water and other surface seals on emissions from shank-injection of Telone C35 and drip-applications of InLine (61% 1,3-D and 33% CP). Water application immediately following shank-injection of the fumigants reduced and delayed emission peaks and thus may reduce risks to workers and by-standers during fumigation. Intermittent water applications were more effective to reduce emission peaks and total emissions than a single water application. Pre-irrigation also effectively reduced emissions. Water applications before and after drip-application of fumigants were also effective to reduce emissions. Results consistently show that water seals can reduce emissions more effectively than HDPE tarp, especially for 1,3-D. However, excess water in the soil inhibits fumigant distribution in soils and may reduce efficacy. Thus the amount of water that reduces emissions while maintaining adequate efficacy needs to be determined in further studies for different types of soil.