Submitted to: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/7/2004
Publication Date: 2/10/2004
Citation: Lapillone, A., Clarke, S.D., Heird, W.C. 2004. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and gene expression. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 7:151-156. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Purpose of review. This review focuses on the effect(s) of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on gene transcription as determined from data generated using cDNA microarrays. Introduced within the past decade, this methodology allows detection of the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously and, hence, is a potentially powerful tool for studying the regulation of physiological mechanisms that are triggered or inhibited by nutrients. Recent findings. Recent data generated using cDNA microarrays not only confirm the effects of n-3 PUFA on regulation of lipolytic and lipogenic gene expression as determined by more traditional methods but also emphasize the tissue specificity of this regulation. cDNA microarray experiments also have expanded our understanding of the role of n-3 PUFA in regulation of expression of genes involved in many other pathways. These include: oxidative stress response and antioxidant capacity; cell proliferation; cell growth and apoptosis; cell signaling and cell transduction. Summary. The cDNA microarray studies published to date show clearly that n-3 PUFA, usually provided as fish oil, modulate expression of a number of genes with such broad functions as DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, transport, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and membrane localization. These effects, in turn, may significantly modify cell function, development and/or maturation.