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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BHNRC) » Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center » Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #202354

Title: Determination of the flavonoid components of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) by LC-DAD-ESI/MS

item Lin, Longze
item Harnly, James - Jim

Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/12/2007
Publication Date: 2/22/2007
Citation: Sousa De Brito, E., Passanha De Araujo, M.C., Lin, L., Harnly, J.M. Determination of the flavonoid components of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. Food Chemistry. 2007. Available doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.02.009

Interpretive Summary: Cashews are a crop of considerable economic importance in Brazil. The cashew nut is a curved section of the stalk that joins the cashew apple to the tree branch. Classically, the cashew is harvested and the apple is thrown away. There is now considerable interest in using the apple in a variety of food applications to further enhance the value of the crop. We analyzed cashew apples for their flavonoid content using a standardized method developed at Beltsville. Flavonoids have purported health-promoting benefits and would enhance the potential value of the apples. We found 14 flavonoid compounds - 13 flavonol glycosides (flavonols with sugars attached) and a trace of one anthocyanidin (delphenidin). This is the first reported analysis of flavonoids in cashew apples.

Technical Abstract: Liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS) was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in cashew apple. One anthocyanin and thirteen glycosylated flavonols were detected in a methanol-water extract. Among them, the 3-O-galactoside, 3-O-glucoside, 3-O-rhamnoside, 3-O-xylopyranoside, 3-O-arabinopyranoside, and 3-O-arabinofuranosides of quercetin and myricetin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside were identified by direct comparison to standards or to positively identified flavonoids in cranberry. The anthocyanin was the 3-O-hexoside of methyl-cyanidin. Trace amounts of delphinidin and rhamnetin were detected in the hydrolyzed extract suggesting their glycosides were present but undetectable in the extract. The concentration of the 14 flavonoids in the tested sample was determined. This is the first report of these flavonoids in cashew apple.