|Xu, Jingyuan - James|
Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/6/2007
Publication Date: 3/1/2008
Citation: Mohamed, A., Rayas-Duarte, P., Xu, J. 2008. Hard red spring wheat / C-trim 20 bread: formulation, processing and texture analysis. Food Chemistry. 107(1):516-524.
Interpretive Summary: The objective of this work is to use bread as a carrier to deliver soluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been proven to lower high cholesterol among other health benefits. C-TRIM20 is a product extracted from oats bran and is used as a source of soluble fiber (beta-glucan). To deliver 0.75g / bread serving, the minimum required by the FDA in order to make a health claim, at least 10% C-TRIM should be added. In this project we added 17 and 17.5% C-TRIM to the flour used for bread making. This project benefits the overall public health and increases the profitability of the oats industry. The amounts of added C-TRIM were not found to alter bread quality significantly, while delivering 5 times the required soluble fiber per bread serving. Finally, this project may also help to increase the sales of bread flour grown in North Dakota.
Technical Abstract: C-TRIM, a beta-glucan-rich fraction, was added to Hard Red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour in order to increase soluble fiber content of bread to a minimum of 0.75 g / bread serving, the minimum required for health claim as established by the FDA. Two blends FGT1 (flour, 25% gluten, and 17% C-TRIM) and FGT2 (flour, 22.5% gluten, and 17% C-TRIM) were prepared. The total amount of soluble fiber coming from C-TRIM addition only was 3.4 - 3.5% in the final product, which is more than needed to make health claim. The presence of C-TRIM increased both, the Farinograph water absorption and the arrival time. The dough mixing tolerance index (MTI) was also increased in the presence of C-TRIM, where FGT1 (17% C-TRIM) showed higher stability than FGT2 (17.5% C-TRIM). The loaf volume of FGT1 was significantly higher than the control and FGT2. The DSC data showed 100% increase in the amount of freezable-water in the FGT1 and FGT2 relative to the control due to the higher water absorption needed in the presence of C-TRIM. Texture analysis of the control and the blend was done after 2, 5, and 7 days storage in 25, 4, and -20 degrees C. The firmness of the control bread was 148% more than the blends after 7 days storage at 25 degrees C. That was expected, since there was less starch in the blend. The amount of 0.1 M acetic acid-extractable protein was reduced in the presence of C-TRIM, while more protein was extracted at pH 7 compared to pH 4.5. The Free Zone Capillary Electrophoresis analysis showed obvious differences in the protein charge and size between dough and bread.