Submitted to: Biocontrol Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/20/2005
Publication Date: 4/20/2006
Citation: Hajek, A.E., Huang, B., Dubois, T., Smith, M.T., Li, Z. 2006. Field Studies of Control of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Using Fiber Bands Containing the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria brongniartii. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 16(4): 329-343. Interpretive Summary: The Asian Longhorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, was first found attacking urban street trees in the United States in 1996 and in Canada in 2003. This tree-killing invasive insect has long been a major pest in China and is difficult to control because immature stages live within wood and long-lived adults are often located high in tree canopies. A microbial control product (Biolisa Kamikiri) consisting of non-woven fiber bands impregnated with cultures of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria brongniartii, is marketed in Japan for control of a congeneric orchard pest. Replicated field trials were conducted in Anhui, China to compare Biolisa Kamikiri with similarly-prepared bands containing Metarhizium anisopliae for control of A. glabripennis. One fungal band was placed at 2-2.5 m height, around the stem or major scaffold branch on each of 40 willow trees (Salix spp.) per plot, with 5 plots for each fungal treatment and 5 control plots. Adult beetles collected from fungal-treated plots 7-22 days after bands were attached to trees died faster than adults from control plots. Beetles exposed to B. brongniartii bands consistently died faster than controls throughout this period, while results from plots with M. anisopliae bands were not as consistent in differing from controls. Numbers of adult beetles from plots of each fungal species dying in < 10 days were greater than controls (16% of beetles) but did not differ between fungal treatments (34-35%). Oviposition in fungal-treated plots was approximately half that in control plots. Locations of adult beetles and oviposition scars within tree canopies were quantified to determine optimal locations for band placement. Most adult beetles were found > 3.5 m high in trees, with adults in B. brongniartii-treated plots higher within trees than adults in other plots.
Technical Abstract: The Asian Longhorn beetle (ALB) has been found attacking urban street trees in New York in 1996, Chicago in 1998, New Jersey in 2002 and 2004, and in Toronto in 2003. This tree-killing invasive insect is a major pest in China, having killed hundreds of millions of trees in the past forty years. The only method known to control this insect and limit its spread is the removal and chipping of infested trees. However, non-woven fiber bands impregnated with cultures of an insect killing fungus is used in Japan to control a closely related insect pest in orchards. Therefore, studies were conducted in China to determine if this Japanese product could control adult ALB, and to compare its effectiveness with that of a second fungal species. Fungal bands were wrapped around the stem or major branch in ALB-infested willow trees. Adult beetles were collected from trees in which bands had been hung and from non-treated trees. These beetles were then held in jars to determine how quickly the beetles died. Beetles collected from the trees containing the Japanese product consistently died faster than those collected from trees that contained no fungal bands. However, beetles collected from trees containing the second fungus died at approximately the same rate as those collected from trees that contained no fungal bands. The fungal bands also reduced the number of eggs that female ALB laid. Results also showed that most adult beetles were found > 3.5 m high in trees, which can now be used to implement the placement of fungal bands within trees so as to achieve optimal control.