Submitted to: Water Environment Research
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/17/2006
Publication Date: 6/26/2009
Citation: Jenkins, M. 2009. Persistence and transport of pathogens from animal agriculture in soil and water. Water Environment Research. pp. 347-368.
Interpretive Summary: Increased animal production in the USA, its industrialization as epitomized by the large-scale confined animal feeding operation (CAFO), and the subsequent increased production, accumulation, and disposal of animal wastes in the form of cattle manure, poultry litter, and swine and dairy slurry has become an object of public health concern because of pathogenic microorganisms in the feces of agricultural animals that cause human disease. Information on manure pathogens is important to manure management and regulation. This book chapter was developed by a scientist at the USDA-ARS J. Phil Campbell, Sr., Natural Resource Conservation Center in Watkinsville, GA. It provides information on infectivity, survival in feces, soil, and water, and provides a model of how these manure pathogens move across a field on which manure has been applied, through the depths of soil to groundwater, and in surface waters to the sea. It concludes with descriptions of measures that can prevent food and water from being contaminated with manure pathogens. This chapter, as well as the book whose contributors are from the USDA-ARS, USEPA, academia, and industry, is intended to be a resource of information for students of animal and environmental sciences and waste management, agricultural engineers, public health officials, agencies of environmental protection, and managers of municipal watersheds.
Technical Abstract: As a chapter in the book An Introduction to Manure Pathogens, Manure Management and Regulation, it focuses on zoonotic pathogens from animal agriculture and their persistence and transport in soil and water. The combination of increased animal production and subsequent increased quantities of waste in the form of manure and slurry, has lead to increased interest in the survival and transport of feces-borne bacterial and protozoan pathogens in the environment. This chapter provides information on infective doses and concentrations in fecal material of manure pathogens that are the most concern to public health. It provides information on their survival dynamics in manure, in soil on which manure is deposited, and in water. The main environmental factors that affect the survival of these pathogens are discussed. The various environmental parameters affecting the hydrologic transport of these pathogens overland, through the soil profile, and in surface waters is analyzed in relation to the survival parameters such as rates of inactivation. The chapter concludes with the topic of control measures to protect food and water from contamination with pathogens of animal agriculture. This chapter, as well as the book whose contributors are from the USDA-ARS, USEPA, academia, and industry, is intended to be a resource of information for students of animal and environmental sciences, and waste management, agricultural engineers, public health officials, agencies of environmental protection, and managers of municipal watersheds.