Submitted to: American Phytopathological Society Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2006
Publication Date: 7/1/2006
Citation: Sanin, S.S., Chuprina, V.P., Sadkovsky, V.T., Sokolov, U.G., Chen, X. 2006. Modeling of cereal rust epidemics in russia: emission of spores into the air from infected crops and formation of spore clouds. APS Abstracts 96:S102. Jul 29-Aug 2, 2006, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
Technical Abstract: Special isolating chambers were used to estimate quantity of spores of Puccinia triticina, P. graminis and P. striiformis in the field intact plants. Spore outflow from infected fields was estimated using ground and airborne impactors. Simultaneous factors that could affect emission and transfer of spore clouds were determined as the level of disease, wind speed, and temperature gradient. Dynamics of spore concentration over the crops during a 24 h period was studied. Three types of 24 h rhythms corresponding to weather conditions were determined: anticyclonic, medium, and cyclonic. The spore outflow during the 24 h period from one hectare depending on the crop and aerological conditions varied from 3.0 ' 108 to 6.0 ' 1012 spores (from 0.3 to 44.8% of spores produced). For P. striiformis, spores varied from 6 ' 108 to 4.2 ' 1012 (1.0-29.4%). For P. triticina, outflow spores were 2.1 ' 108 to 8.0 ' 1011 (0.7- 26.7%). Low figures of outflow corresponded to cyclonic type and high figures to anticyclonic type of dry conditions. Most of spores migrated at heights of up to 2500 meters. High concentrations were accumulated in atmospheric cloud system zones and at the front of cyclones. Mathematical equations for estimating the quantity of spores raised into the air from infected crops, the height of migration of spore clouds, and the size of spore clouds were developed.