Submitted to: Agronomy Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/26/2006
Publication Date: 11/1/2006
Citation: Chen, C., Miller, P., Muehlbauer, F.J., Neill, K., Wichman, D., Mcphee, K.E. 2006. Winter pea and lentil response to seeding date and micro- and macro-environments. Agronomy Journal. 98:1655-1663. Interpretive Summary: Winter legumes offer many advantages to farming systems and, when established using conservation tillage practices, contribute to agricultural sustainability. Agronomic adaptation and relative performance under zero tillage conditions were compared for two breeding lines each of winter pea and winter lentil with two spring sown cultivars of each crop. Relative yield advantage of winter pulses over spring sown cultivars was greatest in the inland Pacific Northwest region while yields were equal or slightly less in the intermountain region of Montana. Crop establishment in the fall was the most critical factor for winter survival. Sowing early in the fall into moist soil was superior to later sowing dates and allowed adequate seedling growth for winter survival. Standing stubble is important for snow capture and protection from cold winds; however, stubble height was most important in the intermountain region and no effect of stubble height was observed at the Pacific Northwest sites. The winter legumes showed significant adaptation to conservation tillage practices and produced greater seed yield in the Pacific Northwest compared to spring sown cultivars.
Technical Abstract: Winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) have potential agronomic advantages over spring types in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and Northern Great Plains (NGP). The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine suitable seeding date and cereal stubble height in no-till systems for winter pea and lentil; 2) quantify yield of winter pea and lentil and compare with spring types; and 3) compare adaptation of winter pea and lentil between the PNW and the NGP. Two breeding lines each of winter pea (PS9430706 and PS9530726) and winter lentil (LC9979010 [‘Morton’] and LC9976079) and two commercial cultivars each of spring pea (‘CDC Mozart’ and ‘Delta’) and spring lentil (‘Brewer’ and ‘CDC Richlea’) were sown on different dates (early and late fall dates for winter lines and spring date only for spring cultivars) and into different stubble heights (0.1 and 0.3 m) and compared for yield and agronomic adaptation in no-till systems at four locations: Moccasin and Amsterdam, MT; Genesee, ID; and Rosalia, WA. Stubble height did not influence winter or spring pea biomass production or seed yield. Tall stubble increased lentil biomass by 220 to 530 kg ha-1 and seed yield by 100 to 260 kg ha-1 in five out of nine site-years. Fall-seeded winter pea lines produced as much as 1830 kg ha-1 more seed yield than spring cultivars at the PNW sites, but not at the NGP sites. Early fall-seeded lentil yielded as much as 480 and 590 kg ha-1 greater than spring types in the NGP and PNW, respectively. Delayed fall seeding and reduced stubble height decreased yields more frequently in the NGP than in the PNW.