Submitted to: Acta Horticulture Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2008
Publication Date: 1/1/2009
Citation: Stover, E.W., Aradhya, M.K., Dangls, G., Prins, B.H., Cousins, P.S. 2009. GRAPE GENETIC RESOURCES AND RESEARCH AT THE DAVIS CALIFORNIA NATIONAL CLONAL GERMPLASM REPOSITORY. Acta Horticulture Proceedings. Acta Hort(ISHS)827:193-196.
Interpretive Summary: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System is a component of the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Davis, California is one of 27 sites in the U.S. National Germplasm System, and is one of nine repositories which emphasize clonal materials. The NCGR houses most of the Mediterranean-adapted fruit and nut crop collections in the U.S., including grapes. Our missions are to acquire, preserve, characterize and distribute germplasm resources of our designated crops. THE VITIS COLLECTION OF THE NCGR The Davis NCGR collection houses the world’s largest grape species collection, including 46 Vitis species and totaling around 700 accessions. We also maintain a collection of over 1200 accessions of V. vinifera, about half of which are “wine grapes” and the other half “table grapes”. In addition, we have over 900 designated hybrids, ranging from recognized “French hybrids” to labrusca types and breeders’ selections. Our collection is further complimented by ~100 V, rotundifolia cultivars, wild collected material, and breeders’ selections. Our V. vinifera collection includes cultivars from the following geographic areas: 167 accessions from France, 159 from Greece, 139 from Italy, 65 from Afghanistan, 61 from Germany, 46 from India/Pakistan, 24 from Hungary, and 16 from North Africa. Where possible, we will compare the SSR fingerprint data from our accessions with those from “type” national collections to verify the identity of Davis NCGR cultivars.
Technical Abstract: The Davis, California National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) houses most Mediterranean-adapted fruit and nut crop collections in the U.S., including grapes (Vitis). The NCGR is part of the USDA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). Our missions are to acquire, preserve, characterize and distribute germplasm resources of our designated crops (http://www.ars.usda.gov/pwa/davis/npgs ). It is NPGS policy to distribute plant material, free of charge, to research interests around the world. The NCGR grape collection includes >2800 different accessions, including one of the world’s finest Vitis species collections, ~600 V. vinifera wine grape varieties, and ~600 V. vinifera table grape varieties. Our sister repository in Geneva, NY houses the cold-hardy grape collection. At the Davis NCGR, genetic markers have been used intensively to assess diversity, relatedness, and trueness to type within the collection. To date, DNA microsatellite and AFLP fingerprinting has been conducted on more than 700 NCGR grape accessions, including 366 V. vinifera. Examination of genetic relationships across numerous Vitis species revealed genetic affinities roughly corresponding to taxonomic distinctions derived morphologically. Proper identification is a key concern since individual grape cultivars have been widely dispersed, with many synonyms, and often the same name used for different cultivars. Except for known or presumed bud-sports, a standard eight microsatellites have uniquely identified each genotype tested. Recent fingerprinting for V. vinifera in European national collections should make it possible to verify identity of many of the V. vinifera varieties in our collection. We will complete standard fingerprinting of named cultivars in our collection by 2008.