|Bailer, A. John|
|Bolger, P. Michael|
|Cherian, M. George|
|Rattan, Suresh I.s.|
Submitted to: Journal of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/26/2007
Publication Date: 3/7/2007
Citation: Calabrese, E.J., Bailer, A., Bachmann, K.A., Bolger, P., Borak, J., Cai, L., Cedergreen, N., Chiueh, C.C., Cherian, M., Clarkson, T.W., Cook, R.R., Diamond, D.M., Doolittle, D.J., Dorato, M.A., Duke, S.O., Feinendegen, L., Gardner, D.E., Hart, R.W., Hastings, K.L., Hayes, A.W., Hoffman, G.R., Jaworowski, Z., Johnson, T.E., Keller, J.G., Klaunig, J.E., Knudsen, T.B., Kozumbo, W.J., Lettieri, T., Liu, S., Maisseu, A., Maynard, K., Masoro, E.J., Mothersil, C., Newlin, D.B., Oehme, F.W., Phalen, R.F., Philbert, M.A., Rattan, S., Riviere, J.E., Rodricks, J., Sapolsky, R.M., Scott, B.R., Seymour, C., Smith-Sonneborn, J., Snow, E.T., Spear, L., Stevenson, D.E., Thomas, Y., Williams, G.M., Mattson, M.P. 2007. Biological Stress Response Terminology: Integrating the Concepts of Adaptive Response and Preconditioning Stress Within a Hormetic Dose-Response Framework. Journal of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 222:122-128.
Interpretive Summary: Hormesis is the stimulatory effect of a subtoxic level of a toxin. Terminology regarding this and related phenomena is not uniform, causing confusion. This paper, with authors from all areas of medicine, bioscience, and toxicology, provides a uniform terminology for hormesis and related phenomena.
Technical Abstract: Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose- response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.