Submitted to: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/1/2006
Publication Date: 6/1/2007
Citation: Orthoefer, F.T., List, G.R. 2007. Initial quality of frying oil. In: Erickson, M.D., editor. Deep Frying Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications, 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. p. 33-50. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Fried food has grown in popularity despite the low-fat/no-fat health trend. For example, between 1979 and 1988, the snack food industry in the United States increased by about 88%. The deep-frying process is commonly used by the snack food industry. The consumer, obviously, prefers the flavor and texture of fried food, especially when eating out. With the growth of fried food, there also has been continual improvement in quality of food prepared by frying. Higher quality food ingredients, better frying oil, and improved frying equipment and frying practices have contributed to the improvement of fried food. Fat or oil used for frying often determines the acceptability of food prepared with them. Although frying oil serves primarily as a heat exchange medium, oil often makes up a significant portion of the final food product, as much as 45% of the total product. Both physical and chemical changes occur in oil as a result of frying. These are due to partial oxidation as well as interaction between oil, water, and food components. Oil varies widely in eating quality, functionality, and rate of deterioration, depending on source, processing, or formulation. An ingredient specification combined with a total quality management perspective for the oil component ensures production of high-quality frying oil and, subsequently, fried food.