Submitted to: Journal Of The American Dietetic Association
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/1/2005
Publication Date: 8/1/2005
Citation: Buel, K., Cullen, K.W., Moreland, K. 2005. Metabolic control in youth with type 2 diabetes summer vs. school year patterns [abstract]. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105(8):A-29(Suppl. 1). Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is now a problem of youth. Proper management of T2D includes consistency in eating patterns, activity and medication, with weight reduction, if needed. Seasonal changes in diet may impact hemoglobin A1C levels (A1C). This study compared A1C level and dietary intake of 75 T2D youth evaluated either during the school year or the summer. A1C and 3 24-hour dietary recalls were collected and compared by season using ANOVA. Mean age of the group was 14 (±2) years; 37% were evaluated during the summer; 61% were girls; 43% were African-American, 44% Hispanic, and 13% other ethnicity; mean BMI percentile was 96. Overall, the youth consumed 1531 (±489) kilocalories (kcal), 37% (±7%) of kcal from fat, 0.82 (±0.96) serving of fruit, 0.31 (±0.50) serving of juice, and 0.45 (±0.54) serving of nonfried vegetables. A1C was significantly higher for the youth evaluated in the summer [9.0% (±2.7)] compared with those evaluated during the school year [7.8% (±2.2)] (p<0.05). Mean kcal intake was higher during the school year [1641 (±483) kcal] compared to summer [1346 (±419) kcal] (p<0.01) as was nonfried vegetable intake [0.58 (±0.59) school year serving and 0.24 (±0.34) summer serving] (p<0.01). Changes in dietary behavior, as a result of changes in supervision, routine and structure may explain these differences between summer and school year. There is a need for closer examination of dietary intake across seasons for youth with T2D. More targeted counseling may be in order for youth with T2D during the summer months.