Submitted to: American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2006
Publication Date: 10/12/2006
Citation: Nelson, D., Evermann, J., Dark, Bradway, D., Call, N., Ridpath, J.F., Haruna, J., Rurangirwa, F. 2006. Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in captive mountain goats (Oreamnos Americanus) [abstract]. American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. p. 29. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Wildlife have emerged as potential factors in the epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). According to VanCampen et al (2001) there has been serologic evidence of BVDV infection in more than 40 species of free-ranging and captive mammals. Reports of disease and isolations of BVDV from wild animals have been rare. In this report we examined the histological and virological results of two fatal cases of disease in young captive mountain goats from the same zoologic park. The initial case was a 7-month-old male mountain goat that died acutely. Selected fresh and fixed tissues were submitted for histology and microbiology. Sections of the liver, kidney, heart, and lung were observed to have inflammatory lesions compatible with a systemic bacterial infection. Sections of the tissues were stained by BVDV immunohistochemistry and viral antigen was detected in all the aforementioned tissues. Virus isolation was positive for BVDV on lung and tissue pool (liver, kidney and spleen). A diagnosis of hepatitis and enteritis was made on the basis of the histologic changes. The BVDV lesions were not considered severe enough for a fatal case of BVDV, but BVDV induced immunosuppression was noted as a potential contributing factor. The second case was a 6-month-old male mountain goat that was in respiratory distress. Upon death, selected tissues were collected for histology and microbiology. Sections of liver, kidney, spleen, heart and lung were examined by histology. Comparable fresh tissues were examined by microbiology. The histologic diagnosis was bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, hepatitis, and interstitial nephritis. The lung tissue was positive for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Lung and mesenteric lymph node was positive for BVDV by virus isolation. Staining for BVD by IHC was positive on sections of the spleen and lungs. As was the summary on the initial case, BVDV-induced lesions were minimal, although they were systemic, and BVDV-induced immunosuppression was considered as a potential contributing factor in the disease process. Further epidemiologic investigation on the BVDV isolates from the two cases revealed the viruses were BVDV type 2. This report is important since it demonstrates that not only are mountain goats susceptible to BVDV infection, but that they are also susceptible to systemic dissemination of the virus and possible immunosuppression.