Submitted to: American Association for the Advancement of Science Meeting
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/15/2006
Publication Date: 2/16/2006
Citation: Vargas, R.I., Leblanc, L., Putoa, R. 2006. Introduction of the parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan), intoFrench Polynesia for suppression of oriental fruit fly. American Association for the Advancement of Science Meeting. Interpretive Summary: Oriental fuit fly was discovered in French Polynesia on Tahiti Island in July 1996. Eradication programs were conducted from 1997 to 2001, but failed. During surveys from 1998 to 2006, it was recovered from fruit on five of the Society Islands. Oriental fruit fly partially displaced the other two invasive fruit fly species previously on the island through competition. The parasitoid wasp, F. arisanus is a natural enemy of oriental fruit fly that attacks fruit fly eggs. Shipments of this wasp were sent from the United States Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center in Hawaii to French Polynesia, where they were released and established on various islands. On Tahiti Island, F. arisanus was recovered in 21 of the 21 districts. As the population of wasps increased, there was a subsequent decrease in the most successful fruit fly populations. Establishment of F. arisanus in French Polynesia is the most successful example of classical biological control of fruit flies in the Pacific area outside of the Hawaiian Islands and serves as a model for introduction of this wasp into other areas.
Technical Abstract: Introduction of the Parasitoid, Fopius arisanus (Sonan), into French Polynesia for Suppression of Oriental Fruit Fly History of Bactrocera dorsalis in French Polynesia Largest program in classical biological control of fruit flies was undertaken to control oriental fruit fly. Thirty-two natural enemies introduced into Hawaii between 1947 and 1962. Fopius arisanus is an egg/pupal parasitic wasp introduced into Hawaii about 1950. Diachasmimorpha longicaudata was superseded by Biosteres vandenboschi which in turn was superseded by F. arisanus. Recent surveys have determined F. arisanus to be the primary parasitoid attacking oriental fruit fly, comprising more than 90% of the parasite guild. Establishment of F. arisanus in Hawaii is considered the most outstanding success in biological control of fruit flies and serves as a model for release and suppression in other parts of the world. History of Fopius arisanus (Sonan) in Hawaii: Oriental fruit fly was accidentally introduced into French Polynesia in 1996, most likely from Hawaii. Large scale eradication programs were conducted on Tahiti and Moorea Islands in 1997 and eradication was almost achieved. Oriental fruit fly rebounded and became more abundant spreading to Raiatea and Huahine Islands. B. dorsalis has displaced B. tryoni and B. kirki and is now the most abundant species. To suppress B. dorsalis, a biological control program was developed to introduce a natural enemy, Fopius arisanus (Sonan). Ten shipments of these parasitic wasps were sent to French Polynesia from Hawaii and released. Fruit Flies Introduced into French Polynesia: Bactrocera kirki (Froggatt), (1928); Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), (1970); Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), (1996) Number of F. arisanus Shipped to French Polynesia: Dec 7, 2002 shipped 50,000; Jan 11, 2003 shipped 52,525; Feb 1, 2003 shipped 41,752; Feb 22, 2003 shipped 50,112; Mar 29, 2003 shipped 50,008; Apr 26, 2003 shipped 47,856; Aug 16, 2003 shipped 79,179; Dec 16, 2003 shipped 43,020; Feb 28, 2004 shipped 53,157; Mar 27, 2004 shipped 56,518; Total shipped 523,127. Conclusions: Oriental fruit fly appears to be displacing Queensland fruit fly (and B. kirki) in many host fruits and in many areas of Tahiti. Fopius arisanus has been recovered from 21 of 21 communities on Tahiti Island. Fopius arisanus has also been recovered from Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine Islands in the Society Islands. Parasitization rates have been as high as 60% in guava. The total impact of Fopius arisanus on Oriental fruit fly and Queensland fruit fly is still being evaluated. Introduction of other species of parasitoids are currently being considered. This is the biggest classical biological control success against fruit flies outside of Hawaii and serves as a model for introduction into other areas of the world where oriental fruit fly has invaded (i.e. South America and Africa).