Submitted to: Ethnicity and Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/7/2005
Publication Date: 11/1/2005
Citation: Carithers, T., Dubbert, P.M., Crook, E., Davy, B., Wyatt, S.B., Bogle, M.L., Taylor, H.A., Tucker, K.L. 2005. Dietary assessment in African Americans: methods used in the Jackson Heart Study. Ethnicity and Disease. 15(4 Suppl 6):S6 49-55. Interpretive Summary: Since dietary intake is largely influenced by culture and food environment, researchers need instruments that measure nutrient and dietary intakes and reflect the culture and food environment in which the research is being done. The Jackson Heart Study of cardiovascular disease required an instrument that would accurately reflect the culture of African Americans. The value of the Delta Food Frequency Questionnaire was demonstrated by using the short form in all Jackson Heart Study volunteers and by asking a subgroup to complete the long form and complete a 24-hour dietary recall interview as well.
Technical Abstract: Objectives: The dietary assessment methods used in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) with the entire cohort and a subset of the cohort who participated in a diet and physical activity substudy (DPASS) are reported. These methods were employed to validate culturally explicit data collection instruments developed by Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) for assessing dietary intake in an all African-American cohort. Design: A validation/calibration design was employed. A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used with all JHS participants (N=5302). A long FFQ and four 24-hour diet recalls were used for the subset of DPASS participants (n=449). Outcome Measures: Completion rates and preliminary macronutrient intakes are reported for the cohort and DPASS methods. Results: Participants (5302) in the JHS full cohort completed the short FFQ. Of these, 572 were enrolled in the DPASS. A total of 506 participants completed four 24-hour dietary recalls, and 499 completed all six measures, including the long FFQ. Preliminary analysis of macronutrients from all three dietary methods supports the validation of the Delta FFQ among Southern African Americans. Validation of dietary instruments in African Americans will help assure that valid conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease in this population.