|Grunwald, Niklaus - Nik|
Submitted to: Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/18/2006
Publication Date: 9/1/2006
Citation: Tyler, B.M., Tripathy, S., Zhang, X., Dehal, P., Jiang, R.H., Aerts, A., Arredondo, F.D., Baxter, L., Bensasson, D., Beynon, J.L., Chapman, J., Damasceno, C.M., Dorrance, A.E., Dou, D., Dickerman, A.W., Dubchak, I.L., Garbelotto, M., Gijzen, M., Gordon, S.G., Govers, F., Grunwald, N.J., Huang, W., Ivors, K.L., Jones, R.W., Kamoun, S., Krampis, K., Lamour, K.H., Lee, M., Maclean, D.J., Mcdonald, W.H., Medina, M., Meiger, H.J., Morris, P.F., Nordberg, E.K., Ospina-Giraldo, M.D., Phuntumart, V., Putnam, N.H., Rash, S., Rose, J.K., Sakihama, Y., Salamov, A.A., Savidor, A., Scheuring, C.F., Smith, B.M., Sobral, B.W., Terry, A., Torto-Alalibo, T.A., Win, J., Xu, Z., Zhang, H., Grigoriev, I.V., Rokhsar, D.S., Boore, J.L. 2006. Phytophthora genome sequences uncover evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis. Science. 313:1261-1266. Interpretive Summary: Phytophthora pathogens are among the most notorious and economically important plant pathogens known to mankind. Among these we count the potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, responsible for causing the Irish potato famine and the Sudden Oak Death (SOD) pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, responsible for large scale mortality in West coast oak forests. The whole genome sequences of two Phytophthora pathogens, namely the soybean pathogen P. sojae and the SOD pathogen P. ramorum, were contrasted. The genome sequences of P. sojae and P. ramorum have yielded novel and important insights into both the evolution of this group of eukaryotes most closely related to algae and their potential mechanisms of pathogenicity. The genomes reveal that the pathogens contain many hundreds of rapidly evolving genes encoding pathogenicity factors involved in disease establishment and development. In addition, this work also provided the opportunity for development of molecular tools to monitor the migration and evolution of the SOD pathogen that is crucial to management of the SOD epidemic.
Technical Abstract: Draft genome sequences of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum have been determined to depths of 9x and 7.7x, respectively. Oomycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopiles with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the Phytophthora sequences suggest that the kingdom's ancestor harbored a photosynthetic endosymbiont. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors and in particular a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known oomycete avirulence genes.