Submitted to: Aquaculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/1/2006
Publication Date: 1/1/2007
Citation: Zimba, P.V., Camus, A., Hanlon, E., Burkholder, J. 2007. Co-occurrence of white shrimp, penaeus vannamei, mortalities and microcystin toxin in a southeastern usa shrimp facility. Aquaculture. Interpretive Summary: Algae are known to produce toxins. Blue-green algae or cyanobacteria produce most toxins found in freshwaters. During a shrimp mortality event in Texas, water samples were collected for algal toxin analyses. Micorcystin-LR was found in water samples and in shrimp samples. Levels were sufficiently high to cause mortalities.
Technical Abstract: Various freshwater and marine algal toxins are known to affect plants, fishes, mammals, and invertebrates. During recent mortality events in Texas white shrimp aquaculture ponds, water and shrimp tissue samples were analyzed for cyanobacterial toxins and found to contain microcystin-LR. Cyanoprokaryota dominated the phytoplankton assemblage in water from the affected pond, particularly Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena spp. Water samples from the affected pond also contained high levels of microcystin-LR (45 µg/L), whereas adjacent ponds had a diatom-green algal assemblage and no measurable toxin. Unialgal isolates of M. aeruginosa from the affected pond produced microcystin-LR. Free microcystin-LR concentrations in dead shrimp hepatopancreas determined by HPLC were 55µg/g total shrimp weight, whereas shrimp hepatopancreas from the adjacent pond without shrimp death had no measurable toxin. Muscle toxin concentration was below 0.1ug/g.