Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/18/2006
Publication Date: 3/1/2007
Citation: Stern, N.J., Georgsson, F., Lowman, R., Bisaillon, J.R., Reiersen, J., Callicott, K., Geirsdottir, M., Hrolfsdottir, R., Hiett, K.L. Frequency and enumeration of campylobacter spp. from proceeded broiler carcasses using weep and rinse samples. Poultry Science. 86:394-399. Interpretive Summary: Campylobacter remains the most frequent bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in Nordic countries. The primary source for humans is thought to be mishandled raw poultry or consuming improperly prepared chicken. The focus of this report was to compare levels of the organism on freshly processed carcasses by a weep and a rinse methodology. Known contaminated flocks were sampled by allowing carcass weep fluids to accumulate under refrigeration for 24 hours and, counting Campylobacter per ml of weep. Using the same 615 carcasses, the traditional rinse sampling was also used to count the organism. Additionally, genetic analysis was used to assess whether the same isolates were found in both sampling procedures. We learned that the Campylobacter-positive weep frequency was 84.8% while the frequency for rinse samples was 74.4%. The correlation between weep and rinse was 0.814 when 0.5 ml of rinse was used to count the organism. A linear relationship for these two tests was determined. Genetic analysis indicated that the same strains were found in both weep and rinse samples from the same carcass. Counting Campylobacter using either weep or rinse samples provides a measure of carcass contamination.
Technical Abstract: Frequency and numbers of Campylobacter spp. were assessed per freshly processed, contaminated broiler carcass. After bird ceca tested Campylobacter-positive, levels of carcass contamination were estimated using free weep fluids and whole carcass rinses. Estimations of counts were determined by direct plating. Thirty two slaughter groups (~20 carcasses per group) were compared from 2003-2004. The Campylobacter-positive weep frequency was 84.8% while the frequency for rinse samples was 74.4% (P<0.0001). When 0.1 ml of the rinse was used for analysis, the Kappa value level of agreement with weep for qualitatively detecting Campylobacter-positive carcasses was 0.41, but when 0.5 ml of the rinse was used the value was increased to 0.76. Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. on positive samples ranged from 0.70 to 6.13 log10 cfu/ml weep (geometric mean of 2.84) and 2.30 to 7.72 log10 cfu/100ml rinse (geometric mean of 4.38), respectively. The correlations between weep and rinse were 0.8140 with 0.5 ml of rinse and 0.6294 when applying 0.1 ml of rinse The quantitative regression analyses relating weep and rinse methods are presented. FlaA SVR sequencing of isolates indicated that the same genotypes were found in both weep and rinse samples.