Submitted to: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/22/2007
Publication Date: 9/25/2007
Citation: Tokousbalides, M., Machera, K., Kyriakopoulou, K., Aliferis, K., Schrader, K., Tsoutsanis, I., Anastasiadou, P. 2007. Comparative toxicity of the phytotoxins (8r,16r)-(-)-pyrenophorin and (5s,8r,13s,16r)-(-)-pyrenophorol on aquatic organisms. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. V. 79:499-503. Interpretive Summary: Two types of toxins produced by fungi and toxic towards plants were evaluated for their toxicity towards non-target aquatic organisms. One toxin was found to be more toxic than the other toxin towards the non-target organisms tested including a certain type of blue-green algae found in catfish aquaculture ponds.
Technical Abstract: The acute toxicities of the fungal phytotoxins (8R,16R)-(-)-pyrenophorin and (5S,8R,13S,16R)-(-)-pyrenophorol on five aquatic organisms were estimated. The evaluation was based on bioluminescence inhibition of Microtox® bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata (Skuja), the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly Selenastrum capricornutum) and the floating vascular plant Lemna minor L. The sensitivity of the brine shrimp Artemia fransiscana was examined by measurements of nauplii mortality. The phytotoxin (8R,16R)-(-)-pyrenophorin was more toxic than (5S,8R,13S,16R)-(-)-pyrenophorol to V. fischeri, O. perornata, L. minor and A. fransiscana. The highest acute toxicity of (8R,16R)-(-)-pyrenophorin was exhibited on V. fischeri (5 min median effective concentration of 3.57 M 10-5) whereas the corresponding value for (5S,8R,13S,16R)-(-)-pyrenophorol was 801 M 10-5. P. subcapitata exhibited a similar lack of sensitivity (median inhibitory concentration of > 10 M 10-5) to both phytotoxins. The data could be considered as ecotoxicological clues for evaluating the selectivity of phytotoxic compounds of fungal origin in regard to environmental safety.